Categoría: Tiempos

Verbos irregulares idénticos en ingles lista completa (PDF)

Los verbos irregulares en inglés idénticos a las tres formas

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Lista de verbos irregulares en inglés idénticos a las tres formas y clasificados en una tabla por semejanza (infinitivo, pretérito / pasado simple y participio pasado).

Para acceder a la lista completa de verbos irregulares en inglés, haga clic aquí.

INFINITIVO PASADO SIMPLE PARTICIPIO PASADO TRADUCCI√ďN
bet bet bet apostar
bid bid bid pujar
burst burst burst reventar
cast cast cast arrojar
cost cost cost costar
cut cut cut cortar
hit hit hit golpear
hurt hurt hurt herir
let let let permitir
overbid overbid overbid pujar, ofertar
proofread proofread proofread leer / corregir errores en un texto
put put put poner
quit quit quit dejar (de)
read read read leer
rid rid rid librarse
set set set poner(se)
shed shed shed to shed light:  arrojar luz/to shed blood: derramar sangre
shut shut shut cerrar
slit slit slit dividir
split split split hender / partir / rajar
spread spread spread extender
thrust thrust thrust introducir
upset upset upset molestar, perturbar
wet wet wet mojar

 

Read se pronuncia ‘red’ (como la color) en participio pret√©rito / pasado simple y pasado

Lista verbos irregulares ingles PDF

Verbos irregulares en ingles lista completa (PDF)

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Verbo irregular en inglés: la lista definitiva, en una tabla imprimible en formato PDF.

Aqu√≠ encontrar√°s los principales verbos irregulares en ingl√©s, los m√°s comunes y √ļtiles, tanto si est√°s repasando para un examen como si s√≥lo los necesitas para estudiar en casa.

Para ver sólo la lista de verbos irregulares idénticos a las tres formas, ¡haga clic aquí!

INFINITIVO PASADO SIMPLE PARTICIPIO PASADO TRADUCCI√ďN
arise arose arisen surgir, levantarse
awake awoke awoken despertarse
be was / were been ser / estar
bear bore borne / born soportar, dar a luz
beat beat beaten golpear
become became become llegar a ser
begin began begun empezar
bend bent bent doblar
bet bet bet apostar
bind bound bound atar, encuadernar
bid bid bid pujar
bite bit bitten morder
bleed bled bled sangrar
blow blew blown soplar
break broke broken romper
breed bred bred criar
bring brought brought traer llevar
broadcast broadcast broadcast radiar
build built built edificar
burn burnt /burned burnt / burned quemar
burst burst burst reventar
buy bought bought comprar
cast cast cast arrojar
catch caught caught coger
come came come venir
cost cost cost costar
cut cut cut cortar
choose chose chosen elegir
cling clung clung agarrarse
creep crept crept arrastrarse
deal dealt dealt tratar
dig dug dug cavar
do (does) did done hacer
draw drew drawn dibujar
dream dreamt / dreamed dreamt / dreamed so√Īar
drink drank drunk beber
drive drove driven conducir
eat ate eaten comer
fall fell fallen caer
feed fed fed alimentar
feel felt felt sentir
fight fought fought luchar
find found found encontrar
flee fled fled huir
fly flew flown volar
forbid forbade forbidden prohibir
forget forgot forgotten olvidar
forgive forgave forgiven perdonar
freeze froze frozen helar
get got got / gotten obtener
give gave given dar
go (goes) went gone ir
grow grew grown crecer
grind ground ground moler
hang hung hung colgar
have had had haber, tener
hear heard heard oir
hide hid hidden ocultar
hit hit hit golpear
hold held held agarrar celebrar
hurt hurt hurt herir
keep kept kept conservar
know knew known saber conocer
kneel knelt knelt arrodillarse
knit knit knit hacer punto
lay laid laid poner
lead led led conducir
lean leant leant apoyarse
leap leapt leapt brincar
learn learnt / learned learnt / learned aprender
leave left left dejar
lend lent lent prestar
let let let permitir
lie lay lain echarse
light lit lit encender
lose lost lost perder
make made made hacer
mean meant meant significar
meet met met encontrar
mistake mistook mistaken equivocar
overcome overcame overcome vencer
pay paid paid pagar
put put put poner
read read read leer
ride rode ridden montar
ring rang rung llamar
rise rose risen levantarse
run ran run correr
say said said decir
see saw seen ver
seek sought sought buscar
sell sold sold vender
send sent sent enviar
set set set poner(se)
sew sewed sewed / sewn coser
shake shook shaken sacudir
shear shore shorn esquilar
shine shone shone brillar
shoot shot shot disparar
show showed shown mostrar
shrink shrank shrunk encogerse
shut shut shut cerrar
sing sang sung cantar
sink sank sunk hundir
sit sat sat sentarse
sleep slept slept dormir
slide slid slid resbalar
smell smelt smelt oler
sow sowed sowed / sown sembrar
speak spoke spoken hablar
speed sped sped acelerar
spell spelt spelt deletrear
spend spent spent gastar
spill spilt / spilled spilt / spilled derramar
spin spun spun hilar
spit spat spat escupir
split split split hender / partir / rajar
spread spread spread extender
spring sprang sprung saltar
stand stood stood estar en pie
steal stole stolen robar
stick stuck stuck pegar engomar
sting stung stung picar
stink stank/stunk stunk apestar
stride strode stridden dar zancadas
strike struck struck golpear
swear swore sworn jurar
sweat sweat sweat sudar
sweep swept swept barrer
swell swelled swollen hinchar
swim swam swum nadar
swing swung swung balancear(se), columpiarse
take took taken coger
teach taught taught ense√Īar
tear tore torn rasgar
tell told told decir
think thought thought pensar
throw threw thrown arrojar tirar
thrust thrust thrust introducir
tread trod trodden pisar, hollar
understand understood understood entender
undergo underwent undergone sufrir
undertake undertook undertaken emprender
wake woke woken despertarse
wear wore worn llevar puesto
weave wove woven tejer
weep wept wept llorar
wet wet wet mojar
win won won ganar
wind wound wound enrollar
withdraw withdrew withdrawn retirarse
wring wrung wrung torcer
write wrote written escribir

¡Eso es! ¡Espero que esta lista de verbos irregulares en inglés le ayude!

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El Futuro Perfecto Continuo en Inglés

¬ŅC√≥mo se forma el Futuro Perfecto Continuo en ingl√©s?

(I will have been playing)

– Explicaci√≥n simple con ejemplos y ejercicios –

 

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El Futuro Perfecto Continuo (o perfecto), tambi√©n llamado en espa√Īol ¬ęfuturo progresivo anterior¬Ľ y future perfect continuous en ingl√®s, es bastante dif√≠cil de dominar pero puede ser pr√°ctico.

Se utiliza para decir cu√°nto tiempo algo habr√° durado hasta cierto punto en el futuro. La duraci√≥n de la acci√≥n suele especificarse con la expresi√≥n de tiempo for o since (for 5 minutes, for two years, since Thursday…). El punto en que se habr√° llevado a cabo la acci√≥n suele indicarse en el presente simple con when o by the time.

  • On january 1st he will have been working¬†at the factory¬†for more than a year¬†. (= En enero habr√° estado trabajando en la f√°brica durante m√°s de un a√Īo.)
  • In just one week from now I will have been living in Tokyo for five years (= En una semana habr√© vivido en Tokio durante cinco a√Īos.).

1/ Estructura

sujeto + will have been + verbo + ing

Afirmativo_ Negativo Pregunta
¬†I / you / he / she / it we / you / they_ ¬† ¬†I will have been playing ¬†_I will not (= I won’t) have been playing¬†_ ¬†_Will I have been playing ?_

 

  • (+) You¬†will (= You’ll) have been playing video games for two hours when her plane finally arrives.
  • (?) Will¬†you¬†have been playing video games¬†for two hours when her plane finally arrives?
  • (-) You¬†will not (= won’t) have been playing video games¬†for two hours when her plane finally arrives.

2/ Uso

* Duración antes de un evento futuro

Notar√°n que los puntos de referencia son al presente simple.

  • By the next year, Camila and her husband will have been living together for twenty years.
  • We will have been talking for over an hour by the time Jos√© arrives.
  • He¬†will have been working¬†at that company for three years when it finally¬†closes.
  • Paloma will have been teaching¬†at the university for 2 years by the time she¬†leaves¬†for Thailand.
  • How long¬†will¬†you¬†have been studying¬†when you¬†graduate?
  • They¬†will have been driving¬†for four hours when they get¬†to Melbourne.
  • When you¬†finish¬†your job,¬†will¬†you¬†have been living¬†in New Zealand for over a year?
  • Before they come, we¬†will have been cleaning¬†the house for two hours.

* La convicción de la causa de una situación futura

Usar el Futuro Perfecto Continuo antes de otra acción futura es una buena manera de mostrar la causa y el efecto.

  • Tina will be tired when he gets home because he¬†will have been working for 12 hours
  • Pablo’s english will be perfect when he returns to Spain because he is going to have been studying English in London for over two years.
  • By this time, he¬†will have been jogging¬†for over an hour¬†so he will be very tired.
  • We will be making a rest stop in half an hour, because you¬†will have been driving¬†the car for 6 hours by then.

3/ Notas

‚ö†ÔłŹ Algunas expresiones comunes con el Futuro Perfecto Continuo:

by tomorrow / 8 o’clock / 8pm / this year / month / week / next year / next month / next week

‚ö†ÔłŹ ¬ŅFuturo Continuo o Futuro Perfecto Continuo?

Si no se especifica una duraci√≥n como ‘for ten minutes‘, ‘for two weeks‘ o ‘since Friday‘, muchos angloparlantes prefieren usar el futuro continuo en lugar del futuro perfecto continuo. Ten cuidado porque esto puede cambiar el significado de la frase.

El futuro continuo insiste en la acción interrumpida, mientras que el futuro perfecto continuo insiste en un tiempo antes de un evento futuro.

  • He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard. (Estar√° cansado porque habr√° estado haciendo deporte en ese mismo momento en el futuro)
  • He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard. (Estar√° cansado porque ha estado haciendo deporte durante un tiempo. Puede que siga haciendo deporte o puede que acabe de terminar.)

‚ö†ÔłŹ Las siguientes expresiones de tiempo no se usan en el futuro perfecto continuo:

when / while / before / after / by the time / as soon as / if / unless

  • You won’t get a promotion until you¬†will have been working here as long as Miguel. ‚ĚĆ
  • You won’t get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Miguel. ‚úĒÔłŹ

‚ö†ÔłŹ No hay verbos de estado en el futuro perfecto continuo

  • Elena will have been having¬†motorbike for over one year.¬†‚ĚĆ
  • Elena will have had her motorbike for over one year. ‚úĒÔłŹ

‚ö†ÔłŹ Forma activa/pasiva

La forma pasiva con un futuro perfecto continuo no es com√ļn:

  • Juan will have been fixing the car for over six weeks by the time it is finished. (Activa)
  • The car will have been being fixed by Juan for over six weeks by the time it is finished. (Pasiva)

 

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El Futuro Perfecto en inglés

¬ŅC√≥mo se forma el Futuro Perfecto en ingl√©s?

(I will have played)

– Explicaci√≥n simple con ejemplos y ejercicios –

 

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El futuro perfecto (o futur perfect en inglés) se utiliza generalmente para hablar de acciones que se completarán antes de un determinado momento, evento u otra acción futura.

  • He will have finished school before 5pm. (= Saldr√° de la escuela a las 5:00.)¬†
  • The party will already have finished by the time we get there. (= La fiesta habr√° terminado para cuando lleguemos.)
  • Tomorrow morning she will have left. (= Ma√Īana por la ma√Īana se habr√° ido.)¬†

1/ Estructura

Sujeto + WILL HAVE + Verbo (participio pasado)

Afirmativo_ Negativo Pregunta
¬†I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they_ ¬† ¬†I will have played_ ¬†_I will not (= I won’t) have played_ ¬†_Will I have played ?_

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  • (+)¬†He will have finished work by 5pm.
  • (-)¬†He will not have (= won’t have)¬†finished work by 5pm.
  • (?) Will he have¬†finished work by 5pm?

2/ Uso

Usamos el futuro perfecto para expresarnos:

* Una acci√≥n tomada antes de un evento o acci√≥n futura…

Algo suceder√° antes de otra acci√≥n en el futuro, o antes de un momento espec√≠fico en el futuro (tomorrow, next month, before something, by 2pm…).

Notar√°n que usamos el presente simple para los puntos de referencia:

  • He¬†will have cleaned up¬†the house before they move in.
  • She¬†will have written¬†the letter before tonight.
  • I will have finished¬†the job before the deadline.
  • How many countries¬†will you have visited¬†by the time you¬†turn 30?
  • By the time he¬†gets¬†home, she¬†will have cleaned¬†the entire room.
  • She¬†will have finished¬†this test by noon.
  • Phil¬†will have drunk ten beers¬†by the time the party starts.
  • Will¬†she¬†have learned¬†enough japanese before she¬†moves¬†to Osaka?

* La duración de ciertas acciones antes de una fecha o evento futuro

  • I¬†will have known¬†Sarah for ten years in October.
  • Patrick¬†will have lived¬†in Sydney for 10 years by 2014.
  • I¬†will have been¬†in London for six months by the time I leave.
  • By Monday, Karl¬†will have had¬†my Ipod for a month.
  • We¬†will have been¬†married for one year next month.

* La creencia de que algo acaba de suceder

  • There’s no point in going to the party. Everybody¬†will have left¬†by now. (= I’m sure everybody has left the party)
  • The bus¬†will have left¬†by now. (= I’m sure the bus has left)
  • My parents¬†will have arrived¬†in Bangkok by now. (I’m sure my parents have arrived in Bangkok)

3/ Notas

‚ö†ÔłŹ Puedes usar ‘going to’ en lugar de ‘will’ (el mismo significado).

  • The bus will have left by now. = The bus is going to have left by now.

‚ö†ÔłŹ No hay un futuro perfecto con when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc.

Usamos el presente perfecto en su lugar:

  • I am going to play video games when I¬†will have finished¬†my homework.¬†‚ĚĆ
  • I am going to play video games¬†when I¬†have finished¬†my homework.¬†‚úĒÔłŹ

‚ö†ÔłŹ Expresiones de tiempo comunes

A menudo usamos el futuro perfecto con:

by / by the time / before / by tomorrow / at 7 o’clock / next month / until / till

  • He will have retired¬†by the end of this year.¬†
  • I¬†will have finished that report before the deadline.

‚ö†ÔłŹ Forma activa/pasiva

  • Antonio will have repaired the car before the end of the week. (Activa)
  • The car will have been repaired by Antonio before the end of the week. (Pasiva)

 

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El Futuro Progressivo en inglés

¬ŅC√≥mo se forma el Futuro Progressivo en ingl√©s?

 (I will be playing)

– Explicaci√≥n simple con ejemplos y ejercicios –

 

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El futuro progresivo (o future progressive / future continuous en inglés) se utiliza para indicar que haremos algo en un punto específico del futuro. Es un tiempo que no es realmente fácil de dominar al principio, pero que los angloparlantes usan mucho.

  • I will be waiting for you tonight. (= Te esperar√© esta noche.)¬†
  • He will be watching TV at 8pm. (= Estar√° viendo la televisi√≥n a las 8:00.)¬†

1/ Estructura

sujeto + will be + verbo con -ing

Afirmativo Negativo Pregunta
I / you /¬†he / she / it /¬†we / they¬† will be playing_ will not (= won’t) be playing_ Will I / he / we etc. be playing?_

 

Tomorrow afternoon,

  • (+) he will be playing tennis. (= He’ll be playing.)
  • (-) he will not be playing. (= He won’t be playing.)
  • (?) will he be playing tennis?

2/ Uso

Usamos el futuro progresivo para expresar:

* Una acción o evento que ocurre (o progresa) en el futuro.

  • I¬†will be travelling in Japan¬†for the next two weeks.
  • Tonight at 10 PM, I¬†will be watching TV.
  • Next weekend,¬†what will you be doing?
  • In an hour, I¬†will be eating¬†lunch.
  • This time next week, I¬†will be relaxing at the beach.¬†
  • ACDC¬†will be performing¬†in Germany for the next three weeks.

* Una acción en progreso en el futuro interrumpida por algo

En los siguientes ejemplos notarán que la interrupción es en el presente simple! Además de usar acciones cortas como una interrupción, también puede usar un tiempo específico:

  • I¬†will be watching¬†TV when he¬†arrives¬†tonight.
  • Will¬†you¬†be waiting¬†for him when his plane arrives tomorrow?
  • When Tom gets home,¬†they will not be sleeping (= they won’t be sleeping)
  • She’ll be having¬†a bath when I’m back home.¬†
  • I¬†will be waiting¬†for you when your bus¬†arrives. (= I’ll be waiting)
  • I will be staying¬†at the Madison Hotel, if anything¬†happens¬†and you¬†need¬†to contact me.
  • I’ll be watching¬†TV when my mother arrives.¬†

* Acciones paralelas en el futuro

El tiempo futuro progresivo se utiliza dos veces para describir dos acciones que ocurrir√°n al mismo tiempo en el futuro. Las acciones ocurrir√°n en paralelo.

  • Later on, I¬†will be watching TV and he¬†will be studying.
  • Tomorrow night, they¬†will be drinking beer, listening to music, and¬†having¬†a good time.
  • Next week he¬†will be flying for India, and I will be flying for Thailand.

* Para hacer suposiciones en tiempo presente

  • He¬†won’t be coming¬†at the party. He is probably still working at the restaurant.
  • She¬†will be getting¬†home at this time.¬†
  • Sarah¬†will be getting¬†married very soon.
  • Tom will be working now (= I think Tom is working now, but I’m not 100% sure).

* Para hacer educadamente preguntas sobre el futuro

Es una forma muy educada de hacer preguntas, con tacto, tal vez para preguntar algo indirectamente:

  • When will you be arriving in Sydney?
  • Will you be taking your car to the party?¬†
  • Will¬†you¬†be using¬†your computer tonight? I have to check something on internet.
  • Will¬†you¬†be going to the bakery? I need to buy some bread.

3/ Notas

‚ö†ÔłŹ El futuro progresivo con¬†¬ęBe Going To be¬Ľ

Tambi√©n puede usar ‘be + going to be + v. ing’ en lugar de ‘will be + v. ing

be + going to be + ing

  • He is going to be working at the pub on Saturday night.
  • Is she going to be¬†working at the pub on Saturday night?
  • She is not going to be¬†working at the pub on Saturday night.

‚ö†ÔłŹ ¬ŅFuturo progresivo o futuro simple?

Las dos oraciones son correctas pero su significado es diferente:

  • I¬†will be eating lunch at 11am ‚Üí¬† Empezar√© a almorzar antes de las 11:00 y puede que todav√≠a est√© comiendo a esa hora.
  • I¬†will eat lunch at 11am ¬†‚Üí¬† Empezar√≠a a almorzar a las 11:00 en punto.

‚ö†ÔłŹ No hay futuro progresivo con expresiones: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc.

Como todos los tiempos futuros, el futuro progresivo no puede ser usado con expresiones de tiempo como when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. En lugar de usar el futuro progresivo, use el presente continuo.

  • While Phil will be driving,¬†Tina will be sleeping in the car.¬†‚ĚĆ
  • While Phil is driving, Tina will be sleeping in the car.¬†‚úĒÔłŹ

‚ö†ÔłŹ¬†Verbos no progresivos

Los verbos no progresivos no pueden usarse con el futuro progresivo.

be / want / seem / cost / need / care / contain / exist / belong / own / like / love / hate / fear / envy

  • Gabriela will be being¬†at my house tonight.¬†‚ĚĆ
  • Gabriela will be at my house tonight. ‚úĒÔłŹ
  • It¬†will be costing¬†a lot of money to fix the car.¬†‚ĚĆ
  • It will cost a lot of money to fix the car.¬†‚úĒÔłŹ

‚ö†ÔłŹ El lugar de los adverbios

Tenga cuidado con los adverbios como always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. en el futuro progresivo:

  • He will¬†still¬†be watching TV when she goes to bed.
  • Will you¬†still¬†be watching TV when she goes to bed?

‚ö†ÔłŹ El futuro progresivo no se utiliza tanto como los otros tiempos del futuro y a veces puede ser sustituido por el futuro simple, el presente continuo o incluso el simple presente.¬†

En los siguientes ejemplos las dos frases expresan una situación casi idéntica, por lo que no importa si se utiliza otro tiempo que el futuro progresivo:

  • I’ll be leaving in a few minutes.
  • =¬†I’m leaving in a few minutes.
  • = I’ll leave in a few minutes.
  • = I’m going to leave in a few minutes.
  • = I leave in a few minutes.
  • Felipe will come soon.
  • = Felipe will be coming soon.

‚ö†ÔłŹ¬†Forma activa/pasiva

En realidad no usamos la forma pasiva en el futuro progresivo:

  • At 10pm tonight, Carl will be using his laptop. (Activa)
  • At 10pm tonight, the laptop will be being used by Carl. (Pasiva)

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El Futuro con ¬ęGoing to¬Ľ en ingl√©s

¬ŅC√≥mo usar el Futuro con ‘Going to’?

(It’s going to rain)

– Explicaci√≥n simple con ejemplos y ejercicios –

 

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El futuro simple tiene dos formas diferentes en ingl√©s: usamos ¬ęwill¬Ľ o ¬ębe+going to¬ę. Aunque se pueden usar de la misma manera, a menudo tienen diferentes significados.

Con un poco de práctica podrás ver la diferencia. Ambas opciones se refieren a un momento específico del futuro.

En esta lección miraremos el futuro simple con be+going to.

Para ver la primera parte (el futuro con Will) haga clic aquí.

1/ Estructura

Be + going to + verbo al presente

Afirmativo Negativo Pregunta
I am I am going to … I am not going to … Am I going to …?
he/she/it is He is going to … He is not going to … He is going to …?
we/you/they are You are going to … You are not going to … Are you going to …?
  • (+) You¬†are going to wash the car.
  • (?) Are¬†you¬†going to wash the car ?
  • (-) You¬†are not going to wash the car.

2/ Uso de ‘be going to’

* Para expresar una intención, una actividad que se quiere llevar a cabo o que ya está en marcha:

  • I’m¬†going to spend¬†my hollydays in Italy.
  • She’s going to text him right now about the news.
  • Tom is going to break up with his girlfriend.
  • I wonder how he’s going to tell her the news.
  • She’s going to cry when she will know that.
  • They¬†are going to travel around Canada.
  • Who¬†are¬†you¬†going to invite¬†to the barbecue ?

* Para predecir eventos futuros (tambi√©n puedes usar ¬ęwill¬Ľ):

  • My wife is going to have a baby.
  • Don’t worry, the plane¬†is not going to¬†crash.
  • Look at the sky, it’s going to rain.
  • The next Star Wars movie is going to be awesome !

3/ Notas

‚ö†ÔłŹ¬†About to

Si la acci√≥n es realmente inminente, puedes usar ‘to be + about to‘ (= estar a punto de… / estar al borde de…).

  • I’m¬†about to¬†leave soon, this party is too boring.
  • He’s¬†about to¬†cry.
  • I just saw Natalie at the club, I’m sure she’s¬†about to¬†cheat on her boyfriend.
  • Open the toilets! I’m about to¬†puke !

‚ö†ÔłŹ¬†Los adverbios como always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. se colocan antes de going to:

  • You are¬†never¬†going to ask him.
  • Are you¬†ever¬†going to ask him ?

 

 

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El Futuro Simple en inglés (con Will)

¬ŅC√≥mo se forma el Futuro Simple con Will en ingl√©s?

(I will buy, They will do…)

– Explicaci√≥n simple con ejemplos y ejercicios –

 

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El futuro simple tiene dos formas diferentes en inglés:

Puedes usar ¬ęwill¬Ľ o ¬ębe+going to¬ę.

Aunque se pueden usar de la misma manera, a menudo tienen diferentes significados.

Con un poco de práctica podrás ver la diferencia. En ambos casos las dos formas se refieren a un momento específico del futuro.

En esta lecci√≥n veremos el futuro simple con ‘Will’. Haz clic aqu√≠ para ver la segunda parte con ¬ębe+going to¬Ľ.

1/ Estructura

Sujeto + Will + verbo en infinitivo 

Afirmativo_ Negativo Pregunta
¬†I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they_ ¬† ¬†I will play ¬†_I will not (= I won’t) play_ ¬†_Will I play ?_

_

  • (+) I will take the bus.
  • (?) Will¬†I take the bus ?
  • (-) I will not take the bus (= I won’t take the bus).

2/ Uso

* Cuando decides hacer algo, o propones hacer algo… o te niegas a hacerlo (tomas la decisi√≥n mientras hablas):

  • What would you like to drink ? ‚Üí ¬†I’ll have a coffee please.
  • I’ll send her an email this afternoon.
  • I don’t think I’ll buy¬†that house.
  • I will help you to clean up the mess.
  • I’ll open¬†the door for you.
  • Hold on. I’ll get¬†a pen.
  • I’ll pay by credit card.
  • I¬†won’t go there alone.
  • I forgot to call Phil. I’ll call him now.
  • I won’t leave until I’ve seen the manager.
  • Are you hungry ?¬†I’ll prepare some sandwiches.
  • You look tired.¬†I’ll get¬†you some coffee.

* Para expresar una predicción o hipótesis futura (también se puede usar be+going to):

  • If you ask her, she will give you a lift.
  • She will be surprised when she will see that.
  • Who do you think¬†will win the race¬†?
  • He won’t believe what happened.
  • I don’t think Joey¬†will¬†come tonight.¬†
  • It¬†will snow¬†tomorrow.¬†

* Pedirle a alguien que haga algo (con ‘will you… ?):

  • Will you please turn the light off ? I’m going to bed.
  • Will¬†you come with me to the party ?
  • Will you please bring me my wallet ?¬†
  • Will you please listen to me ?
  • Will¬†you¬†help¬†me clean up the table ?
  • Will you marry me ?

* Para expresar una promesa

  • I¬†will text¬†you when I arrive.
  • I will not go to the club tonight (= I won’t go to the club tonight).
  • I’ll make¬†sure the dog has enough food.
  • I promise I¬†won’t tell¬†her about your secret.
  • I’ll be¬†careful, don’t worry.

* Para expresar un cierto futuro (con be)

  • The meeting¬†will be¬†at 10am.
  • I¬†will be¬†in Melbourne next week.
  • I’ll be¬†at the bar after the meeting.
  • There¬†will be¬†40 people at the party.

* Para expresar el futuro condicional

  • If something happen, I will call you.
  • If we can’t find your place, we will come back home.

3/ Notas

‚ö†ÔłŹ A menudo usamos ‘I think I’ll…’ y ‘I don’t think I’ll…’

  • I’m hungry. I think I’ll have something to eat.
  • I don’t think I’ll go out tonight. I’m too tired.

‚ö†ÔłŹ Shall y Will¬†

A veces se utiliza Shall en lugar de Will para hablar en el futuro, pero esto es muy poco com√ļn en el ingl√©s moderno y s√≥lo en la literatura, la poes√≠a o los textos de derecho con he, she, you, they:

  • You shall not pass ! (= ¬°no vas a pasar!)
  • You shall not kill ¬†(= no matar√°s)

Si se oye Shall en una frase, se utiliza principalmente para hacer una oferta o una sugerencia, o para pedir consejo (con I o We).

  • Shall¬†we go ?
  • Shall I open the window ?

‚ö†ÔłŹ Puedes usar ¬ęwon’t¬Ľ para decir que alguien o algo se niega a hacer lo que quieres:

  • The car won’t start.
  • I’ve tried to talk to her but she won’t listen to me.

‚ö†ÔłŹ Forma activa/pasiva

  • Active ‚Üí ¬†Tim will finish¬†the work this afternoon.¬†
  • Passive ‚Üí ¬† The work¬†will be finished¬†this afternoon.

‚ö†ÔłŹ Lugar de los adverbios

Los adverbios como always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. se colocan después de will:

  • You will¬†never¬†be good at Street Fighter.
  • Will you¬†ever be good at Street Fighter?

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El Pasado Perfecto Continuo en Inglés (Past Perfect Continuous ) PDF

¬ŅC√≥mo se forma el Pasado Perfecto Continuo en ingl√©s?

(I had been playing…)

– Explicaci√≥n simple , ejemplos y ejercicios –

 

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El pasado perfecto continuo (o past perfect continuous) también se llama pasado perfecto progresivo o pasado perfecto en be+ing.

  • When I went outside this morning the ground was wet. It had been raining.
  • = Cuando sal√≠ esta ma√Īana el suelo estaba mojado. Hab√≠a llovido.
  • We had been playing football for ten minutes when it started to rain.
  • = Llev√°bamos diez minutos jugando al f√ļtbol cuando empez√≥ a llover.¬†

1/ Estructura

sujeto + had been + base verbal + ing

Afirmativo Negativo Pregunta
¬†I¬†/ you / he / she /¬†we¬†/ you / they_ ¬† ¬†… had been playing_ ¬†… had not¬†(hadn’t) been playing_ ¬†Had … been playing ?_

_

  • (+) She had been travelling for one month when she finally arrived in Mexico.
  • (?) Had¬†she been travelling for one month when she finally arrived in Mexico?
  • (-)¬†She had not been travelling for one month when she finally arrived in Mexico.

2/ Uso

* Algo que comenzó en el pasado y continuó hasta otra acción o evento pasado (en combinación con el pasado simple):

  • Carol had been saving money for more than a year before she left for Canada.
  • How long¬†had¬†you¬†been studying¬†Japanese before you moved to Osaka ?
  • How long had he been watching TV when he felt asleep ?
  • We had been trying¬†to open the door for five minutes when Peter found the key.
  • Bruce wanted to walk because he¬†had been sitting all day at work.
  • How long¬†had¬†you¬†been waiting before the bus arrived¬†?
  • They had been talking¬†for over an hour before Kat arrived.
  • Phil had been working¬†at that restaurant for two years when it went out of business.

* La causa y el efecto de algo en el pasado

Puedes ver el resultado de algo que ocurri√≥ (puedes usar ¬ębecause¬Ľ).

  • Tom was very tired. He¬†had been running.
  • = Tom was tired because he¬†had been running.
  • Tina gained weight because she¬†had been eating too much.
  • Somebody¬†had been smoking.¬†I could smell tobacco.
  • I¬†was disappointed when she canceled the trip. I had been looking forward to spend some time with her.
  • Agust√≠n was crying because he had been fighting with his brother.

* Discurso indirecto

  • ‘I was working late in the garage last night.’ ‚Üí Roberto told them he had been working¬†late in the garage last night.
  • ‘I have been partying all night.’ ‚Üí Emmanuela said she had been partying all night.

3/ Notas

‚ö†ÔłŹ Past Continuous o Past Perfect Continuous ?

Con el past perfect continuous, la duración de la acción es más importante, mientras que con el past continuous es la acción misma la que es más importante.

Sin embargo, si no especificamos la duraci√≥n (for 45 minutes, for one week, since Friday…) muchos angloparlantes prefieren usar el past continuous.

  • Past continuous ‚Üí ¬† We were playing tennis when it started raining.

Cuando jugamos al tenis empezó a llover. La atención se centra en lo que estábamos haciendo cuando empezó a llover (es decir, el juego de tenis).

  • Past perfect continuous ‚Üí ¬†¬†We had been playing tennis (for 45 minutes) when it started raining.

Habíamos estado jugando al tenis durante un tiempo, o simplemente habíamos parado, cuando empezó a llover. El énfasis está en la duración de la acción (aquí el juego de tenis).

‚ö†ÔłŹ Algunos verbos no toman la forma continua:

Estos son principalmente verbos abstractos o verbos relacionados con un estado mental.

like / love / hate / prefer / need / want / belong / contain / fit / consist / seem / realise / know / believe / imagine / understand / remember 

  • Chris had been wanting to travel around the world¬†before he died.¬†¬†‚ĚĆ
  • Chris had wanted to travel around the world¬†before he died.¬†‚úĒÔłŹ

‚ö†ÔłŹ No hay pasado perfecto continuo para el verbo ser (to be):

Had been being es simplemente sustituido por had been

  • Sam had been¬†being¬†very happy because he won to the lottery.

‚ö†ÔłŹ El lugar de los adverbios

Los adverbios se colocan antes de been: always, only, just, never, ever, still, etc.

  • He had¬†just¬†been waiting there for two minutes when the train arrived.
  • Had he¬†just¬†been waiting there for two minutes when the train arrived ?

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El Pasado Perfecto en Inglés (Past Perfect)

¬ŅC√≥mo se forma el Pasado Perfecto en ingl√©s?

(I had played)

– Explicaci√≥n simple con ejemplos y ejercicios –

 

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El pasado perfecto (a veces llamado pluperfect) se utiliza cuando queremos hablar de dos acontecimientos pasados sucesivos, es decir, hablar de una acción que tuvo lugar antes de otra acción pasada.

Para la traducci√≥n al espa√Īol, podemos decir que es el equivalente del pret√©rito pluscuamperfecto (¬ęElla hab√≠a estudiado…¬Ľ ¬ę√Čl ya se hab√≠a ido…¬Ľ ).

1/ Estructura

sujeto + had (have al past simple) + participio pasado (worked, been, gone…)

Afirmativo Negativo Pregunta
¬†I¬†/¬†you¬†/¬†we¬†/¬†they ¬† ¬†I had played ¬†I had not¬†(hadn’t) played ¬†Had I played¬†?_
¬†he¬†/¬†she¬†/¬†it¬† ¬†He had played_ ¬†He had not¬†(hadn’t) played_ ¬†Had he played¬†?_

_

  • (+) She had studied Japanese before she moved to Tokyo.
  • (?) Had she studied¬†Japanese before she moved to Tokyo¬†?
  • (-) She had¬†not¬†studied¬†Japanese before she moved to Tokyo.

2/ Uso

* Cuando dos acciones tuvieron lugar en momentos diferentes en el pasado

Usamos el past perfect para hablar de la acción que ocurre primero, y el past simple (= pretérito) para el segundo.

  • The bus¬†had¬†already¬†left¬†when Tom¬†arrived¬†at the bus stop.
  • We watched a horror movie¬†after the kids¬†had gone¬†to bed.
  • By the time Tina¬†finished shopping, John¬†had been¬†at the bar for one hour.
  • I¬†had¬†never¬†eaten such a good sushi before I went to Japan.
  • I did not have any money because I¬†had lost¬†my wallet.
  • Barbara¬†knew¬†Sydney well because she¬†had visited¬†the city many times.
  • Had Tom studied¬†english before he moved to the USA ?
  • He was not able to get a ticket for the show because he hadn’t booked¬†in advance.
  • She checked with the post office and they still hadn’t received her package.
  • I had eaten dinner before they arrived.

* Para expresar un pasado hipotético, con if (para hablar de cosas que podrían haber ocurrido)

  • If John¬†had been able to¬†drive a car, he¬†would have¬†gone home earlier.
  • If I hadn’t drunk¬†so much coffee, I would have slept last night.

* Para expresar arrepentimiento (con ‘wish’ o ‘If only’)

  • If only I¬†had¬†invited¬†her to the cinema.
  • If I¬†had known, I wouldn’t have come.
  • I wish¬†he¬†hadn’t¬†failed¬†his driving exam.
  • He wishes he¬†hadn’t bought¬†that car.
  • She wishes she¬†had stayed in Miami longer.
  • I wish I¬†had done¬†scuba diving when I went to Indonesia.

*¬†Para el estilo indirecto, cuando se quiere contar lo que alguien dijo, pens√≥ o crey√≥ (a menudo con los verbos said, told, thought, explained, asked, wondered, believed…)¬†

  • ‘I¬†have seen… ¬†‘ ‚Üí ¬† ¬†He said he¬†had seen…
  • ‘I¬†lost¬†my wallet’ ‚Üí ¬† ¬†She said she¬†had lost her wallet.
  • She told us that the bus had left.
  • I thought¬†we had already decided to go to Paris this summer.
  • He explained that he¬†had locked¬†the window because of the thieves.
  • I wondered if she had seen¬†this movie before.
  • I asked him why he had¬†bought this house.
  • They told me they had already paid the bill.

3/ Notas

‚ö†ÔłŹ¬†Past perfect +¬†just

Usamos el past perfect con ¬ęjust¬Ľ para decir que algo acaba de suceder recientemente:

  • The train had just left¬†when we arrived at the station.
  • She¬†had just left¬†the room when she heard a noise.
  • He had just washed the car when it started to rain.

‚ö†ÔłŹ Con ‘when’:

  • When you were born, the internet hadn’t already been created.
  • When I finished high school, I hadn’t learnt to drive a car yet.
  • When I went to the bar, they had already been drinking a lot.

‚ö†ÔłŹ Con ‘before’ / ‘after’:

Si la acci√≥n en el past perfect ocurri√≥ en un momento espec√≠fico y se usa ¬ębefore¬Ľ o ¬ęafter¬Ľ en la oraci√≥n, puede ser reemplazado por el past simple.

  • He¬†had visited¬†Melbourne once in 2011 before he moved there in 2013.¬†
  • = He¬†visited¬†Melbourne¬†once in 2011 before he moved there in 2013.

PERO si el past perfect no corresponde a una acción tomada en un momento específico, no podemos usar el past simple:

  • He never¬†saw¬†a kangaroo before he moved to Australia.¬†‚ĚĆ
  • He¬†had¬†never¬†seen¬†a kangaroo before he moved to Australia.¬†‚úĒÔłŹ

‚ö†ÔłŹ¬†Had + had

  • We¬†had had¬†that car for two years before it broke down.
  • I wish I had had more girlfriends when I was young.

‚ö†ÔłŹ La voz activa/pasiva:

  • Nathan had created many websites before he started his business. (Activa)
  • Many websites had been created by Nathan before he started his business. (Pasiva)

‚ö†ÔłŹ Algunas palabras de uso frecuente con el past perfect:

already, just, before, when, by the time,¬†once, twice, three times…

 

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El Pasado Continuo en inglés (Past Continuous) РPDF

¬ŅC√≥mo se forma el Pasado Continuo en ingl√©s?

(I was doing, you were working…)

– Explicaci√≥n simple con ejemplos y ejercicios¬†–

 

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En esta lección vamos a estudiar el Pasado Continuo (Past Continuous en inglés), también llamado pretérito progresivo o pasado progresivo.

El presente simple (I do) tiene su presente continuo (I am doing).

El pasado simple (I did) por lo tanto tiene su pasado continuo (I was doing).

Por lo tanto, nos centraremos aquí en el pasado continuo (o past continuous en inglés). A veces se llama pasado progresivo (past progressive), pretérito continuo o pretérito progresivo, pero no me malinterprete, ¡es exactamente lo mismo!

1/ Formación del Pasado Continuo en inglés:

‘to be’ al pasado simple¬†(WAS / WERE) + basa verbal+ ING

  • I / he / she / it ¬† was ¬† ¬† playing, having, moving
  • we / you / they ¬† were ¬† ¬†¬†doing, reading, writing

2/ ¬ŅCu√°l es la diferencia entre el past simple y el Pasado Continuo?

Mira el siguiente ejemplo:

  • Past simple: I had lunch at noon yesterday¬† ¬†‚Üí¬† Almorc√© al mediod√≠a ayer.
  • Past continuous: I was having lunch at noon yesterday ¬† ‚Üí¬† Estaba almorzando al mediod√≠a ayer.

3/ ¬ŅPara qu√© se usa el Pasado Continuo en ingl√©s?

En espa√Īol se puede traducir como ‘estar en el proceso de…’ (en el pasado)

>> Lo usamos para hablar sobre una acción en progreso en un momento pasado:

  • We were waiting at the caf√©.

>> Para decir que una acción en progreso ha sido interrumpida (hay entonces el past simple en la oración):

  • I was drinking at the bar when she called me.
  • I hurt my leg while I was running in the park.
  • He phoned me when we were having lunch.
  • It was snowing when I went out.

>> Cuando dos acciones ocurrieron al mismo tiempo, sin tener ninguna influencia entre ellas (a menudo se utiliza ¬ęwhile¬Ľ):

  • John was watching TV while Linda was reading a book.
  • I¬†was studying¬†while he¬†was making¬†dinner.
  • While Dave¬†was sleeping¬†last night, someone stole his car.
  • What¬†were¬†you¬†doing¬†while you¬†were waiting?
  • They¬†were drinking beer, talking about life, and¬†having¬†fun.

>> Acciones pasadas que irritan al hablante:

  • Bob was always complaining.
  • She was constantly repeating the same story.

>> Acciones pasadas que se repetían a menudo:

  • He was jogging around the lake every day.

>> Para describir a una persona en el pasado:

  • When I saw him he was wearing a hat.
  • The thief was wearing a black hood.

4/ El Pasado Continuo en frases negativas:

  • I¬†was not¬†talking to you (= I wasn’t talking to you)
  • You¬†were not¬†playing¬†football (=¬†You¬†weren’t¬†playing¬†football)
  • They were not dancing at the party (= They weren’t dancing at the party)

5/ Hacer preguntas al Pasado Continuo:

  • Was¬†I¬†playing¬†football ?
  • Why were¬†you¬†not watching¬†football ?
  • What¬†were¬†they¬†doing¬†when the show started?

6/ Forma activa/pasiva

  • The thief¬†was stealing¬†the diamond when the police arrived (Activa)
  • The diamond¬†was being stolen¬†by the thief when the police arrived (Pasiva)

‚ö†ÔłŹ Algunos verbos no se utilizan normalmente en el Pasado Continuo (ni tampoco en el presente continuo) con algunas excepciones. La lista no est√° completa pero aqu√≠ est√°n los principales:

love / like / know / want / need / seem / mean / prefer / belong / understand / consist / suppose / remember / realise / forget / notice…¬†

  • I needed to go to the doctor (y no ‘I was needing…’)
  • I loved this movie ! (y no ‘I was loving this movie‘)
  • We wanted to go out but it was raining (y no ‘we were wanting…’)

 

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