El Pasado Perfecto en Ingl茅s (Past Perfect)

驴C贸mo se forma el Pasado Perfecto en ingl茅s?

(I had played)

– Explicaci贸n simple con ejemplos y ejercicios –

 

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El pasado perfecto (a veces llamado pluperfect) se utiliza cuando queremos hablar de dos acontecimientos pasados sucesivos, es decir, hablar de una acci贸n que tuvo lugar antes de otra acci贸n pasada.

Para la traducci贸n al espa帽ol, podemos decir que es el equivalente del pret茅rito pluscuamperfecto (芦Ella hab铆a estudiado…禄 芦脡l ya se hab铆a ido…禄 ).

1/ Estructura

sujeto + had (have al past simple) + participio pasado (worked, been, gone…)

Afirmativo Negativo Pregunta
聽I聽/聽you聽/聽we聽/聽they 聽 聽I had played 聽I had not聽(hadn’t) played 聽Had I played聽?_
聽he聽/聽she聽/聽it聽 聽He had played_ 聽He had not聽(hadn’t) played_ 聽Had he played聽?_

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  • (+) She had studied Japanese before she moved to Tokyo.
  • (?) Had she studied聽Japanese before she moved to Tokyo聽?
  • (-) She had聽not聽studied聽Japanese before she moved to Tokyo.

2/ Uso

* Cuando dos acciones tuvieron lugar en momentos diferentes en el pasado

Usamos el past perfect para hablar de la acci贸n que ocurre primero, y el past聽simple (= pret茅rito) para el segundo.

  • The bus聽had聽already聽left聽when Tom聽arrived聽at the bus stop.
  • We watched a horror movie聽after the kids聽had gone聽to bed.
  • By the time Tina聽finished shopping, John聽had been聽at the bar for one hour.
  • I聽had聽never聽eaten such a good sushi before I went to Japan.
  • I did not have any money because I聽had lost聽my wallet.
  • Barbara聽knew聽Sydney well because she聽had visited聽the city many times.
  • Had Tom studied聽english before he moved to the USA ?
  • He was not able to get a ticket for the show because he hadn’t booked聽in advance.
  • She checked with the post office and they still hadn’t received her package.
  • I had eaten dinner before they arrived.

*聽Para expresar un pasado hipot茅tico, con if (para hablar de cosas que podr铆an haber ocurrido)

  • If John聽had been able to聽drive a car, he聽would have聽gone home earlier.
  • If I hadn’t drunk聽so much coffee, I would have slept last night.

* Para expresar arrepentimiento (con ‘wish’ o ‘If only’)

  • If only I聽had聽invited聽her to the cinema.
  • If I聽had known, I wouldn’t have come.
  • I wish聽he聽hadn’t聽failed聽his driving exam.
  • He wishes he聽hadn’t bought聽that car.
  • She wishes she聽had stayed in Miami longer.
  • I wish I聽had done聽scuba diving when I went to Indonesia.

*聽Para el estilo indirecto, cuando se quiere contar lo que alguien dijo, pens贸 o crey贸 (a menudo con los verbos said, told, thought, explained, asked, wondered, believed…)聽

  • ‘I聽have seen… 聽‘ 鈫 聽 聽He said he聽had seen…
  • ‘I聽lost聽my wallet’ 鈫 聽 聽She said she聽had lost her wallet.
  • She told us that the bus had left.
  • I thought聽we had already decided to go to Paris this summer.
  • He explained that he聽had locked聽the window because of the thieves.
  • I wondered if she had seen聽this movie before.
  • I asked him why he had聽bought this house.
  • They told me they had already paid the bill.

3/ Notas

鈿狅笍聽Past perfect +聽just

Usamos el past perfect con 芦just禄 para decir que algo acaba de suceder recientemente:

  • The train had just left聽when we arrived at the station.
  • She聽had just left聽the room when she heard a noise.
  • He had just washed the car when it started to rain.

鈿狅笍 Con ‘when’:

  • When you were born, the internet hadn’t already been created.
  • When I finished high school, I hadn’t learnt to drive a car yet.
  • When I went to the bar, they had already been drinking a lot.

鈿狅笍 Con ‘before’ / ‘after’:

Si la acci贸n en el past perfect ocurri贸 en un momento espec铆fico y se usa 芦before禄 o 芦after禄 en la oraci贸n, puede ser reemplazado por el past simple.

  • He聽had visited聽Melbourne once in 2011 before he moved there in 2013.聽
  • = He聽visited聽Melbourne聽once in 2011 before he moved there in 2013.

PERO si el past perfect no corresponde a una acci贸n tomada en un momento espec铆fico, no podemos usar el past simple:

  • He never聽saw聽a kangaroo before he moved to Australia.聽鉂
  • He聽had聽never聽seen聽a kangaroo before he moved to Australia.聽鉁旓笍

鈿狅笍聽Had + had

  • We聽had had聽that car for two years before it broke down.
  • I wish I had had more girlfriends when I was young.

鈿狅笍 La voz activa/pasiva:

  • Nathan had created many websites before he started his business. (Activa)
  • Many websites had been created by Nathan before he started his business. (Pasiva)

鈿狅笍 Algunas palabras de uso frecuente con el past perfect:

already, just, before, when, by the time,聽once, twice, three times…

 

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